Vacuum frying as a route to produce novel snacks with desired quality attributes according to new health trends (Journal of Food Science, 2011)
The objective of this research was to study the effect of oil temperature reduction when vacuum frying traditional (potatoes) and nontraditional products (carrots and apples) on most important quality attributes (vitamins, color, and oil uptake). Results are promising and show that vacuum frying can be an alternative to produce nutritious and novel snacks with desired quality attributes, since vitamins and color were greatly preserved and oil absorption could be substantially reduced.
Vacuum-fried carrot and potato chips absorbed about 50% less oil than atmospheric-fried chips, whereas vacuum-fried apple chips reduced oil absorption by 25%. Total carotenoids and ascorbic acid (AA) were greatly preserved during vacuum frying. Carrot chips vacuum fried at 98 °C retained about 90% of total carotenoids, whereas potato and apple slices vacuum fried at 98 °C, preserved around 95% of their initial AA content.
Effect of osmotic dehydration and vacuum-frying parameters to produce high-quality mango chips (Journal of Food Science, 1999)
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a fruit rich in flavor and nutritional values, which is an excellent candidate for producing chips. The objective of this study was to develop high-quality mango chips using vacuum frying. Mango chips under atmospheric frying had less carotenoid retention (32%) than those under vacuum frying (up to 65%).
Effect of Vacuum Frying on Changes in Quality Attributes of Jackfruit Bulb Slices (Int J Food Sci, 2014)
The effect of frying temperatures and durations on the quality of vacuum fried jackfruit (JF) chips was evaluated. The frying time for JF chips was found to be 30, 25, and 20 minutes at 80, 90, and 100°C, respectively. Frying under vacuum at lower temperatures was found to retain bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids in JF chips. Almost 90% of carotenoids were lost from the samples after 30 min of frying at 100°C.
The restricted loss of Total Phenolics in JF chips after 30 min of frying at 80, 90, and 100°C was found to be 53, 69, and 77%, respectively.
Frying at 80 and 90°C up to 10 min did not result in significant (P < 0.05) loss in flavonoid content of chips. However, flavonoids were found to degrade right from the beginning when chips were fried at 100°C, vis-à-vis from the initial period of 5 minutes to 30 minutes of frying. After frying for 30 minutes almost 32, 45, and 67% of flavonoids were degraded in the JF chips.
Fresh JF slices were found to have 3.03 mg/100 g (dry weight basis) carotenoids. After frying for 5 min 5, 10, and 14% of carotenoids were degraded from initial value in chips fried at 80, 90, and 100°C, respectively
Vacuum frying of high-quality and vegetable-based snack (Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie, 2015)
Sweet potato, green beans, Tommy Atkins mango, and blue potato were fried in a vacuum frying process at a temperature of 120–130 ± 1°C. Before frying, green beans and mango slices were soaked in a 50% maltodextrine 0.15% citric acid solution.
The products were also fried in a traditional (atmospheric pressure) fryer at 160–165 ± 1°C for 4 min. A 30-member consumer panel rated the sensory quality of both types of fried snacks using a 1–9 hedonic scale. Compared with traditional frying, oil content of vacuum-fried sweet-potato chips and green beans was 24% and 16% lower, respectively. Blue potato and mango chips had 6% and 5% more oil, respectively, than the traditional-fried samples.
Anthocyanin (mg/100 g d.b.) of vacuum-fried blue potato chips was 60% higher [compared to traditional fried]. Final total carotenoids (mg/g d.b.) were higher by 18% for green beans, 19% for mango chips, and by 51% for sweet-potato chips. Sensory panelists overwhelmingly preferred (p < 0.05) the vacuum-fried products for color, texture, taste, and overall quality. Most of the products retained or accentuated their original colors when fried under vacuum. The traditional-fried products showed excessive darkening and and scorching. These results support the applicability of vacuum frying technology to provide high-quality fruit and vegetable snacks.scorching. These results support the applicability of vacuum frying technology to provide high-quality fruit and vegetable snacks.